Tuesday, November 29, 2011

Ginseng, Asian (Panax ginseng) and Ginseng, North America Health Benefits and Side Effects

Ginseng is a slow-growing perennial plants with fleshy roots, the genus Panax, belonging to the family Araliaceae. Depending to the climate where it grows, ginseng can be classified mainly into Panax ginseng Asian ginseng (root), Red ginseng, wild ginseng, American ginseng (root).

A. Ginseng Asia
http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_VgTieCVIdyk/THfjPOdtLAI/AAAAAAAAAvs/As0JW4kCNlw/s400/ginseng-ren_shen.jpg
Ginseng Asia is also known as Panax ginseng. Since it has been grown in the cold places in the Asian, Asian ginseng is considered as yang promoting, according to traditional Chinese medicine.
The herb has been used in traditional and Chinese medicine to promote yang and to improve cardiac function, short of breath, blood pressure. Panax ginseng can generates fluids and reduce thirst, to treat anxiety, insomnia, dizziness/headache, forgetfulness, impotence, diabetes, bleeding in the vagina not during period, etc.

Health Benefits
1. Erectile dysfunction
Panax ginseng has been used as yang promoting herb as it improves sexual desire, treat erectile dysfunction and impotent over thousands of year. In the investigation of the effectiveness of
Korean ginseng and mountain ginseng (Panax ginseng CA Meyer) for treating erectile dysfunction, found that A total of 86 patients completed 8 weeks of treatment. The scores on the five domains of the IIEF after medication were significantly higher than the baseline scores in the group treated with TMGE (P<0.05), whereas no significant improvement was observed in the placebo group (P>0.05). Erectile function and overall satisfaction scores after medication were significantly higher in the TMGE group than in the placebo group (P<0.05). Erectile function of patients in the TMGE-treated group significantly improved, suggesting that TMGE could be utilized for improving erectile function in male patients, according to "Effects of tissue-cultured mountain ginseng (Panax ginseng CA Meyer) extract on male patients with erectile dysfunction"by Kim TH, Jeon SH, Hahn EJ, Paek KY, Park JK, Youn NY, Lee HL.(1)

2. Antioxidant activity
In the evaluation of the extraction conditions of polysaccharides from the rhizomes of Panax japonicus C.A. Meyer and its antioxidant effect found that antioxidant activity exhibited Panax japonicus polysaccharides (PJP) had a good potential for antioxidant, according to "Optimization of polysaccharides from Panax japonicus C.A. Meyer by RSM and its anti-oxidant activity" by Wang R, Chen P, Jia F, Tang J, Ma F.(2)

3. Antipsychotic effect
In the investigation of Panax quinquefolium (PQ) and its significant neuroactive properties for its antipsychotic potential found that PQ blocked ketamine induced memory impairment in the passive avoidance paradigm. In the chronic studies, PQ reduced the ketamine induced enhanced immobility in the forced swim test and did not show extra-pyramidal side effects in bar test and wood block test of catalepsy. These behavioural effects were compared with standard drugs haloperidol and clozapine. Further PQ reduced DA and 5-HT content after chronic treatment, but not after acute administration, according to "Evaluation of the Antipsychotic Potential of Panax quinquefolium in Ketamine Induced Experimental Psychosis Model in Mice" by Chatterjee M, Singh S, Kumari R, Verma AK, Palit G.(3)

4. Anti-cancers
In the identification of Panax ginseng as a herb used in Asia for the prevention and treatment of various diseases, including cancer found that the results clearly indicate the structure-related activities in which the compound with less polar chemical structures possesses higher cytotoxic activity towards cancer cells, according to "The in vitro structure-related anti-cancer activity of ginsenosides and their derivatives" by Dong H, Bai LP, Wong VK, Zhou H, Wang JR, Liu Y, Jiang ZH, Liu L.(4)

5. Neuroprotective effect
In the analyzing Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer and its beneficial effects in cerebral ischemia and inhibition of the inflammatory cascade in sepsis found that Ginsenoside Rb1 (GRb1) partially inhibited the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway from 6 h to 72 h after ischemia and reperfusion onset, as determined by the expression of total and phosphorylated NF-κB/p65, inhibitor protein of κB (IκB)-α, and IκB-kinase complex (IKK)-α. All these results indicate that suppression of local inflammation after cerebral ischemia might be one mechanism that contributes to the neuroprotection of GRb1, according to "Suppression of local inflammation contributes to the neuroprotective effect of ginsenoside Rb1 in rats with cerebral ischemia" by Zhu J, Jiang Y, Wu L, Lu T, Xu G, Liu X.(5)

6. Immunological activities
In the study of Water-soluble ginseng oligosaccharides (designated as WGOS) with a degree of polymerization ranging from 2 to 10 were obtained from warm-water extract of Panax ginseng roots, found that WGOS were potent B and T-cell stimulators and WGOS-1 has the highest immunostimulating effect on lymphocyte proliferation among those purified fractions. It is hoped that the WGOS will be developed into functional food or medicine, according to "Structural characterization and immunological activities of the water-soluble oligosaccharides isolated from the Panax ginseng roots" by Wan D, Jiao L, Yang H, Liu S.(6)

7. Breast cancer
In the investigation the anticancer effects of warming and relieving cold phlegm formula (, WRCP), a mixture composed of the aqueous extracts of Aconitum carmichaeli, Rhizoma bolbostemmatis, Phytolacca acinosa, Panax notoginseng, and Gekko swinhonis G ū enther, combined with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on human breast cancer found that the treatment combination of WRCP and 5-FU was more effective in the inhibition of tumor growth than either agent alone and may have potentially additional benefit in improving the general condition and immunity of the mice with human breast cancer cell implants, according to "Anticancer effects of 5-fluorouracil combined with warming and relieving cold phlegm formula on human breast cancer" by Wang XL, Ma F, Wu XZ(7)

8. Type 2 diabetes
In the researches of Red ginseng (RG, Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) and its effect for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) found that the evidence for the effectiveness of RG in controlling glucose in type 2 DM is not convincing. Few included studies with various treatment regimens prohibit definitive conclusions. More rigorous studies are needed to clarify the effects of RG on this condition, according to "Red ginseng for type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials" by Kim S, Shin BC, Lee MS, Lee H, Ernst E.(8)

9. Metabolic cardiovascular disease
In the identification of several traditional Chinese medicine and teirs effect on metabolic cardiovascular disease, authors emphasized that the relationship among axis of excessive ROS/RNS-mitochondrial dysfunction-apoptosis-atherosclerosis. They also introduce several traditional Chinese medicines such as Ophiopogon japonicus, butin, Panax ginseng, Pueraria lobata, Solanum lyratum and so on in the treatment of relevant diseases through anti-ROS/RNS mechanism. Moreover, the TCMs also can anti-cancer and anti-fatigue,which show the speciality of TCMs different from the single effect of classical western medicines, according to "[Mitochondrial dysfunction induced by excessive ROS/RNS-metabolic cardiovascular disease and traditional Chinese medicines intervention].[Article in Chinese]" by Zhang C, Liu J, Pan H, Yang X, Bian K.(9)

10. Prostate hyperplasia
in the demonstration of Panax ginseng's pharmacological activities on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) found that 20(S)-Rg3 downregulated AR by facilitating the degradation of AR protein. WKRG and 20(S)-Rg3 were found to have new pharmacological activities against testosterone-induced prostate overgrowth. Given that red ginseng has been used safely in Asia for 1000 years, red ginseng and 20(S)-Rg3 could be potential therapeutic regimens for treating BPH, according to "Red ginseng and 20(S)-Rg3 control testosterone-induced prostate hyperplasia by deregulating androgen receptor signaling" by Bae JS, Park HS, Park JW, Li SH, Chun YS(10)

11. HL-60 cells
In the classification of Four new triterpene saponins, ginsenosides Rh (14)-Rh (17) ( 1- 4), along with two known compounds, 20( S)-ginsenoside Rg (2) and dammar-( E)-20(22),24-diene-3 β,6 α,12 β-triol, and theirs effect on HL-60 cells found that the isolated compounds were tested for IN VITRO cytotoxicity against HL-60 cells, according to "Four New Dammarane-Type Triterpene Saponins from the Stems and Leaves of Panax ginseng and Their Cytotoxicity on HL-60 Cells" by Li KK, Yao CM, Yang XW.(11)

12. Wound healing
In the investigation of herbal drugs (Panax ginseng, beta-sitosterol from Aloe vera, calycosin from Radix Astragali, and extracts from Hippophae rhamnoides L. and Angelica sinensis.) and theirs effect on wound healing indicated that the use of plants and their extracts as potential therapeutic agents with pro- or antiangiogenic activity. Since the anticancer and antiangiogenic properties of many phytomedicines have been amply reviewed elsewhere this paper will focus on the treatment of vascular insufficiency in wound healing, according to "Proangiogenic activity of plant extracts in accelerating wound healing - a new face of old phytomedicines" by Majewska I, Gendaszewska-Darmach E.(12)

13. Cardiovascular Disorders
In the evaluation of plethora of pharmacological properties of North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) and Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng) found that Experimental studies have revealed a number of beneficial properties of ginseng, particularly in the area of cardiac protection, where ginseng and ginsenosides have been shown to protect the ischaemic and reperfused heart in a variety of experimental models. Emerging evidence also suggests that ginseng attenuates myocardial hypertrophy, thus blunting the remodelling and heart failure processes. However, clinical evidence of efficacy is not convincing, likely owing primarily to the paucity of well designed, randomized, controlled clinical trials, according to "Therapeutic Potential of Ginseng in the Management of Cardiovascular Disorders" by Karmazyn M, Moey M, Gan XT.(13)

14. Atherosclerosis
In the association of the herbal remedies on the prevention and treatment of AS found that mixed herbal preparations with multiple active ingredients may be preferable for the prevention and treatment of AS. Further rigorously designed pharmacological evaluation and multi-centred clinical trials are warranted, according to "Herbal Remedies Supply a Novel Prospect for the Treatment of Atherosclerosis: A Review of Current Mechanism Studies" by Zeng Y, Song JX, Shen XC.(14)

15. Etc.

Side effects
1. The herb can cause tremors, nervousness, headache, vomiting, insomnia, nose bleeding, etc.
2. Please do not use Panax ginseng, if you have heart disease or taken heart problem medicine
3. Panax ginseng may interact with other medication, including aspirin, Warfarin/Coumadin, etc.
4. Do not use the herb if you are pregnant
5. Etc.
Healthy Happy Herbs
A Beginner's Guide To Herbs And
Herb Gardening, Step by step


Super foods Library, Eat Yourself Healthy With The Best of the Best Nature Has to Offer

For the world most popular herbs list, visit http://theworldmostpopularherbs.blogspot.com/2011/10/world-most-popular-herbs-health.html
other health articles, please visit http://medicaladvisorjournals.blogspot.com/


B. Ginseng North America
http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-BKsxQHx0aEU/TbQ4PzGOauI/AAAAAAAAACk/BgEuxUSBChs/s1600/ginseng-1.jpg
North America Ginseng is also known as P. quinquefolius American ginseng (root), is considered as yin promoting, as the roots is growth from a hot area, according to traditional Chinese medicine. Ginseng North America has been used in TCM to quench thirst, heal deficiency of lungs and chronic cough and to treat tiredness and unrest, chronic fever, etc.

Health Benefits
1. Colorectal cancer
In the investigation of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L., Araliaceae) and its anti-cancer potentialfound that three genes were up-regulated (AKAPA8L, PMPCB and PDE5A) and three were down-regulated (PITPNA, DUS2L and RIC8A). Although further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms of action, our findings should expand the understanding of the molecular framework of American ginseng as an anti-cancer agent, according to "Characterization of gene expression regulated by American ginseng and ginsenoside Rg3 in human colorectal cancer cells" by Luo X, Wang CZ, Chen J, Song WX, Luo J, Tang N, He BC, Kang Q, Wang Y, Du W, He TC, Yuan CS.(a)

2. Cardiovascular disease
In the demonstration of emerging evidence suggests ginseng has therapeutic potential in cardiovascular disease found that ginseng treatment significantly decreased infarct size and myocardial apoptosis following I/R in WT mice, but not in either eNOS(-/-) mice or WT mice treated with LY294002. We conclude that ginseng treatment protects the heart from I/R injury via upregulation of eNOS expression. Our study suggests that ginseng may serve as a potential therapeutic agent to limit myocardial I/R injury, according to "North American ginseng protects the heart from ischemia and reperfusion injury via upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase" by Wu Y, Lu X, Xiang FL, Lui EM, Feng Q.(b)

3. Pediatric upper respiratory tract infection
In the evaluation of Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng root extract) standardized to contain 80% poly-furanosyl-pyranosyl-saccharides and theirs effect on upper respiratory tract infections in childdren found that standard doses of ginseng were well tolerated and merit additional evaluation with regard to treatment of pediatric upper respiratory tract infection, according to "Safety and tolerability of North American ginseng extract in the treatment of pediatric upper respiratory tract infection: a phase II randomized, controlled trial of 2 dosing schedules" by Vohra S, Johnston BC, Laycock KL, Midodzi WK, Dhunnoo I, Harris E, Baydala L.(c)

4. Glycemia and insulinemia
In the assessment the evidence indicates that the glycemia-lowering effect of American ginseng root may be batch dependent. found that American ginseng decreased postprandial glycemia and insulinemia; however, 40% of the batches did not reduce glycemia with the anticipated magnitude, irrespective of their saponin composition, according to "Five batches representative of Ontario-grown American ginseng root produce comparable reductions of postprandial glycemia in healthy individuals" by
Dascalu A, Sievenpiper JL, Jenkins AL, Stavro MP, Leiter LA, Arnason JT, Vuksan V.(d)

5. Etc.

Side effects
Similar to Panax ginseng
Healthy Happy Herbs
A Beginner's Guide To Herbs And
Herb Gardening, Step by step


Super foods Library, Eat Yourself Healthy With The Best of the Best Nature Has to Offer

For the world most popular herbs list, visit http://theworldmostpopularherbs.blogspot.com/2011/10/world-most-popular-herbs-health.html
other health articles, please visit http://medicaladvisorjournals.blogspot.com/


Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19234482
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22214823
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22189635
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22183886
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22173011
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22183124
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22160948
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22139546
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22121816
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22101440
(11) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22034065
(12) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22030557
(13) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21975571
(14) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21928391

(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18425323
(b) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21621617
(c) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18676527
(d) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18066131

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Health Benefits and Side Effects




Ginger (Zingiber officinale) or ginger root is the genus Zingiber, belonging to the family Zingiberaceae, native to Tamil. It has been used in traditional and Chinese medicine to treat dyspepsia, gastroparesis, constipation, edema, difficult urination, colic, etc.


Health Benefits

1. Anxiety

In the assessment of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and its effect in reducing anxiety, found that -shogaol, 1-dehydro-6-gingerdione, and particularly the whole lipophilic ginger extract (K(i)=11.6 microg/ml) partially activate the 5-HT(1A) receptor (20-60% of maximal activation). In addition, the intestinal absorption of gingerols and shogaols was simulated and their interactions with P-glycoprotein were measured, suggesting a favourable pharmacokinetic profile for the 5-HT(1A) active compounds, according to "Identification of serotonin 5-HT1A receptor partial agonists in ginger" by Nievergelt A, Huonker P, Schoop R, Altmann KH, Gertsch J.(1)


2. Anti Diabetes and hypoglycaemic effect

In the evaluation of the hypoglycaemic potentials of ginger (Zingiber officinale) with extract of raw ginger was administered daily (500 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) for a period of 7 weeks to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats found that The STZ-injected rats exhibited hyperglycaemia accompanied with weight loss, indicating their diabetic condition. At a dose of 500 mg/kg, raw ginger was significantly effective in lowering serum glucose, cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels in the ginger-treated diabetic rats compared with the control diabetic rats, according to "Anti-diabetic and hypolipidaemic properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats" by Zainab M. Al-Amina, Martha Thomsona, Khaled K. Al-Qattana, Riitta Peltonen-Shalabya/and Muslim Alia(2)


3. Ovarian cancer

In the identification of The effect of ginger and the major ginger components on cell growth in a panel of epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines found that in vitro, 6-shogaol is the most active of the individual ginger components tested. Ginger treatment resulted in inhibition of NF-kB activation as well as diminished secretion of VEGF and IL-8 and concluded that Ginger inhibits growth and modulates secretion of angiogenic factors in ovarian cancer cells. The use of dietary agents such as ginger may have potential in the treatment and prevention of ovarian cancer, according to "Ginger inhibits cell growth and modulates angiogenic factors in ovarian cancer cells" by Jennifer Rhode, Sarah Fogoros, Suzanna Zick, Heather Wahl, Kent A Griffith, Jennifer Huang, and J Rebecca Liu(3)


4. Anti-Cancer and Anti-Inflammatory effects

In the classification of the effect of ginger extract on the expression of NFκB and TNF-α in liver cancer-induced rats found that ginger extract significantly reduced the elevated expression of NFκB and TNF-α in rats with liver cancer. Ginger may act as an anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory agent by inactivating NFκB through the suppression of the pro-inflammatory TNF-α, according to "Ginger Extract (Zingiber Officinale) has Anti-Cancer and Anti-Inflammatory Effects on Ethionine-Induced Hepatoma Rats" by Shafina Hanim Mohd Habib,I Suzana Makpol, Noor Aini Abdul Hamid, Srijit Das, Wan Zurinah Wan Ngah, and Yasmin Anum Mohd Yusof (4)


5. Functional dyspepsia

In the assessment of evaluate the effects of ginger on gastric motility and emptying, abdominal symptoms, and hormones that influence motility in dyspepsia found that Ginger stimulated gastric emptying and antral contractions in patients with functional dyspepsia, but had no impact on gastrointestinal symptoms or gut peptides, according to "Effect of ginger on gastric motility and symptoms of functional dyspepsia" by Ming-Luen Hu, Christophan K Rayner, Keng-Liang Wu, Seng-Kee Chuah, Wei-Chen Tai, Yeh-Pin Chou, Yi-Chun Chiu, King-Wah Chiu, and Tsung-Hui Hu(5)


6. Wound healing

In the investigation of topically treated with a combination of 10% curcumin and 3% ginger extract (or with each agent alone) for a 21-day period and its wound healing effect found that a combination of curcumin and ginger extract might provide a novel approach to improving structure and function in skin and, concomitantly, reducing formation of non-healing wounds in “at-risk” skin, according to "A COMBINATION OF CURCUMIN AND GINGER EXTRACT IMPROVES ABRASION WOUND HEALING IN CORTICOSTEROID-DAMAGED HAIRLESS RAT SKIN" by Narasimharao Bhagavathula, Ph.D., Roscoe L. Warner, Ph.D., Marissa DaSilva, B.S., Shannon D. McClintock, B.S., Adam Barron, B.S., Muhammad N. Aslam, M.D., Kent J. Johnson, M.D., and James Varani, Ph.D.(6)


7. Delay of diabetic cataract

In the demonstration of antiglycating activity and ginger (Zingiber officinalis) found that ginger was effective against the development of diabetic cataract in rats mainly through its antiglycating potential and to a lesser extent by inhibition of the polyol pathway. Thus, ingredients of dietary sources, such as ginger, may be explored for the prevention or delay of diabetic complications, according to "Antiglycating potential of Zingiber officinalis and delay of diabetic cataract in rats" by Megha Saraswat, Palla Suryanarayana, Paduru Yadagiri Reddy, Madhoosudan A. Patil, Nagalla Balakrishna, and Geereddy Bhanuprakash Reddy(7)

(8) Osteoarthritis

In the researches of the effect of ginger in patient with Osteoarthritis suggested that nurses could consider this therapy as part of a holistic treatment for people with osteoarthritis symptoms. Controlled research is needed with larger numbers of older people to explore further the effects of the ginger compress therapy, according to "Ginger compress therapy for adults with osteoarthritis' by Tessa Therkleson(8)


9. Anti bacteria (Helicobacter pylori)

In the assessment of a standardized extract of ginger rhizome and the effect on the growth of Helicobacter pylori in vitro found that suggest ginger extracts may be useful for development as agents to reduce H. pylori-induced inflammation and as for gastric cancer chemoprevention, according to "Standardized ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract reduces bacterial load and suppresses acute and chronic inflammation in Mongolian gerbils infected with cagA+Helicobacter pylori" Kristen Gaus, Yue Huang, Dawn A. Israel, Susan L. Pendland, Bolanle A. Adeniyi, and Gail B. Mahady(9)


10. Liver cancer

In the investigation of the effect of ginger in ethionine induced rat hepatocarcinogenesis found that ginger supplementation suppressed liver carcinogenesis by scavenging the free radical formation, and by reducing lipid peroxidation, according to "Chemopreventive Efficacy of Ginger (Zingiber Officinale) in Ethionine Induced Rat Hepatocarcinogenesis" by
Yasmin Anum Mohd Yusof, Norliza Ahmad, Srijit Das, Suhaniza Sulaiman, and Nor Azian Murad(10)


11. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

Beside with the potential to be used in treating liver cancer, ginger is found to protect liver against Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), according to "Potential efficacy of ginger as a natural supplement for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease" by Amirhossein Sahebkar(11)


12. Rheumatoid Arthritis

In the observation of crude ginger extract and its effect on joint swelling in an animal model of rheumatoid arthritis, streptococcal cell wall (SCW)-induced arthritis, found that these data document a very significant joint-protective effect of these ginger samples, and suggest that non-gingerol components are bioactive and can enhance the antiarthritic effects of the more widely studied gingerols, according to "Comparative Effects of Two Gingerol-Containing Zingiber officinale Extracts on Experimental Rheumatoid Arthritis"
Janet L. Funk, Jennifer B. Frye, Janice N. Oyarzo, mand Barbara N. Timmermann(12)


13. Colon cancer

In the classification of ginger extract and 6-gingerol and theirs effect on colon cancer biology--cancer cell proliferation and angiogenic potential of endothelial cell tubule formation, found that 6-gingerol has two types of antitumor effects: 1) direct colon cancer cell growth suppression, and 2) inhibition of the blood supply of the tumor via angiogenesis. Further research is warranted to test 6-gingerol in animal studies as a potential anticancer plant bioactive in the complementary treatment of cancer, according to "Ginger's (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) inhibition of rat colonic adenocarcinoma cells proliferation and angiogenesis in vitro" by
Brown AC, Shah C, Liu J, Pham JT, Zhang JG, Jadus MR.


14. Pregnancy-induced nausea and vomiting

In the assessing the evidence for or against the efficacy and safety of ginger (Zingiber officinale) therapy for nausea and vomiting during pregnancy found that Ginger may be an effective treatment for nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. However, more observational studies, with a larger sample size, are needed to confirm the encouraging preliminary data on ginger safety, according to "Effectiveness and safety of ginger in the treatment of pregnancy-induced nausea and vomiting' by Borrelli F, Capasso R, Aviello G, Pittler MH, Izzo AA.(14)


15. Motion sickness

In the evaluation of the antimotion sickness activity of ginger root (Zingiber officinale) found that Ginger effectively reduces nausea, tachygastric activity, and vasopressin release induced by circular vection. In this manner, ginger may act as a novel agent in the prevention and treatment of motion sickness, according to "Effects of ginger on motion sickness and gastric slow-wave dysrhythmias induced by circular vection" by Lien HC, Sun WM, Chen YH, Kim H, Hasler W, Owyang C.(15)

16. Etc.


Side effects

1. The herb may interact with blood thinner medication, please consult with your doctor iof you are currently yaking such medicine

2. Do not use the herb if you have ulcer or internal bleeding

3. Due to certain chemical compound, ginger may cause heartburn, diarrhea and irritation of the mouth

4. Do not use the herb, if you have gallstones, as this herb increases bile production

5. It may cause allergic effect

6. Do not use in case of yin deficiency or in stomach heat with vomiting, according to TCM

7. Etc.



Sources















Garlic (Allium sativum) Health Benefits and Side Effects

http://www.carpfarmersmarket.com/calendar/aug/bulbs%201.jpg
Garlic (Allium sativum) is a species in the onion genus, belonging to family Amaryllidaceae, native to central Asia. It has been used popularly in traditional and Chinese medicine in treating common cold and flu to the Plague, blood pressure cholesterol levels, natural antibiotic, etc.

Health benefits
1. Anti cancer
In the evaluation of Garlic (Allium sativum) its consumption to reduce cancer risk and its extracts and components effectively block experimentally induced tumors found that allicin inhibited the growth of cancer cells of murine and human origin. Allicin induced the formation of apoptotic bodies, nuclear condensation and a typical DNA ladder in cancer cells. Furthermore, activation of caspases-3, -8 and -9 and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase were induced by allicin, according to "Allicin (from garlic) induces caspase-mediated apoptosis in cancer cells" by Oommen S, Anto RJ, Srinivas G, Karunagaran D.(1)

2. Colon cancer
In the identification of Allicin (diallyl thiosulfinate) of freshly crushed garlic extract and its effect against colon cancer found that allicin induces Nrf2-mediated luciferase transactivation activity. SiRNA knock down of Nrf2 significantly affected the capacity of allicin to inhibit HCT-116 proliferation. These results suggest that Nrf2 mediates the allicin-induced apoptotic death of colon cancer cells, according to "Allicin purified from fresh garlic cloves induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells via Nrf2" by Bat-Chen W, Golan T, Peri I, Ludmer Z, Schwartz B.(2)

3. Gastric cancer
In the classification of
Diallyl disulfide (DADS) a organosulfur compound from garlic and it inhibits the proliferation of several tumor cells found that DADS decreases the viability of AGS cell lines and induces apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. But the relationship of the anti-proliferative effect of DADS and related molecular changes were not clearly proportional to the concentration of DADS, according to "Induction of apoptosis with diallyl disulfide in AGS gastric cancer cell line" by Lee JE, Lee RA, Kim KH, Lee JH.(3)

4. Breast cancer
In the analyzing Garlic-derived organosulfur compounds (OSCs) and its antitumor effects found that Garlic constituent diallyl trisulfide (DATS) suppresses viability of cultured MCF-7 and MCF-12a cells respectively by decreasing the percent of cells in G(2)/M and inducing apoptotic cell death. DATS-induced apoptosis was markedly elevated in MCF-7 cells compared with MCF-12a cells and this was correlated with elevated levels of cyclin B1, according to "Garlic constituent diallyl trisulfide induced apoptosis in MCF7 human breast cancer cells" by Malki A, El-Saadani M, Sultan AS.(4)

5. Lung cancer
In the observation of the Garlic-derived organosulfur compounds (OSCs) and its protection against chemically induced pulmonary carcinogenesis found that garlic constituent diallyl trisulfide (DATS) suppresses viability of cultured human lung cancer cell lines H358 (anon-small cell lung cancer cell line) and H460 (a large cell lung cancer cell line) by causing G2-M phase cell cycle arrest and apoptotic cell death. On the other hand, a normal human bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B was significantly more resistant to growth inhibition and apoptosis induction by DATS compared with lung cancer cells, according to "Diallyl trisulfide selectively causes Bax- and Bak-mediated apoptosis in human lung cancer cells" by Xiao D, Zeng Y, Hahm ER, Kim YA, Ramalingam S, Singh SV.(5)

6. Blood pressure
In the assessment of garlic extract and its effect of hypertension. found that Aged garlic extract was generally well tolerated and acceptability of trial treatment was high (92%) and aged garlic extract is superior to placebo in lowering systolic blood pressure similarly to current first line medications in patients with treated but uncontrolled hypertension, according to "Aged garlic extract lowers blood pressure in patients with treated but uncontrolled hypertension: a randomised controlled trial" by Ried K, Frank OR, Stocks NP.(6)

7. Atherosclerosis
In the demonstration of aged garlic extract therapy with supplements (AGE+S) and theirs effect on cardiovascular diseases found that CAC progression was significantly lower and TR significantly higher in the AGE+S compared to the placebo group after adjustment of cardiovascular risk factors (p<0.05). Total cholesterol, LDL-C, homocysteine, IgG and IgM autoantibodies to MDA-LDL and apoB-immune complexes were decreased, whereas HDL, OxPL/apoB, and Lp (a) were significantly increased in AGE+S to placebo and concluded that AGE+S is associated with a favorable improvement in oxidative biomarkers, vascular function, and reduced progression of atherosclerosis., according to "Aged garlic extract supplemented with B vitamins, folic acid and L-arginine retards the progression of subclinical atherosclerosis: a randomized clinical trial" by Budoff MJ, Ahmadi N, Gul KM, Liu ST, Flores FR, Tiano J, Takasu J, Miller E, Tsimikas S.(7)

8. Antifungal antitumor cytotoxicity and blood coagulability effects
In the identification of organosulfur compounds and theirs effects on cardiovascular diseases found that in vitro antifungal antitumor cytotoxicity and blood coagulability effects of steroid saponins from garlic and related Allium species are provided. Animal studies on the cholesterol-lowering effects of the saponin fractions from garlic are also summarized, according to "Saponins in garlic as modifiers of the risk of cardiovascular disease" by .Matsuura H(8)

9. Cardiovascular diseases
In the review of the experimental and clinical studies confirm that the ancient experience with beneficial effects of garlic holds validity even in prevention of cardiovascular disorders and other metabolic ills, indicated that Garlic-derived organic polysulfides are converted by erythrocytes into hydrogen sulfide which relaxes vascular smooth muscle, induces vasodilation of blood vessels, and significantly reduces blood pressure. There are data on potential ability of garlic to inhibit the rate of progression of coronary calcification. Garlic as a dietary component appears to hold promise to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (Fig. 2, Ref. 46), according to "Garlic (Allium sativum L.) and cardiovascular diseases" by Ginter E, Simko V.(9)

10. Antioxidant effects
In the study of the Extracts of aged fresh garlic that are aged over a prolonged period and its antioxidant effects found that the ability of AGE to protect against oxidant-induced disease, acute damage from aging, radiation and chemical exposure, and long-term toxic damage. Although additional observations are warranted in humans, compelling evidence supports the beneficial health effects attributed to AGE, i.e., reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, cancer and aging, including the oxidant-mediated brain cell damage that is implicated in Alzheimer's disease, according to "Antioxidant health effects of aged garlic extract" by
Borek C.(10)

11. Diabetes
In the comparison of the effects of dietary ginger (Zingiber officinale) and garlic (Allium sativum) investigated in a type 2 diabetes model of rats found that that ginger and garlic are insulinotropic rather than hypoglycemic while overall anti-diabetic effects of ginger are better than those of garlic, at least in this experimental condition. Much better anti-diabetic effects of ginger and garlic may be obtained when feeding is with a normal rather than a HF-containing diet, according to "Comparative effects of dietary ginger (Zingiber officinale) and garlic (Allium sativum) investigated in a type 2 diabetes model of rats" by Islam MS, Choi H.(11)

12. Common cold
In the searched from January 1966 to September 2009 combining the key words common cold or influenza with echinacea, garlic, ginseng, probiotics, vitamin C, and zinc. Clinical trials and prospective studies found that for prevention, vitamin C demonstrated benefit in a large meta-analysis, with possibly increased benefit in patients subjected to cold stress. There is inconsistent evidence for Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng) and North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius). Allicin was highly effective in 1 small trial. For treatment, Echinacea purpurea is the most consistently useful variety; it was effective in 5 of 6 trials. Zinc lozenges were effective in 5 of 9 trials, likely owing to dose and formulation issues. Overall, the evidence suggests no benefit from probiotics for prevention or treatment of the common cold, according to "Complementary and alternative medicine for prevention and treatment of the common cold" by Nahas R, Balla A.(12)

13. Tuberculosis
In the investigation of the garlic extracts and the increasing incidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and particularly of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) found that Allium sativum offers a hope for developing alternative drugs. The involvement of traditional healers (TH) in the TB health management could facilitate the administration of garlic extracts to the infected patients, according to "The potential role of garlic (Allium sativum) against the multi-drug resistant tuberculosis pandemic: a review" by Dini C, Fabbri A, Geraci A.(13)

14. Etc.

Side Effects
1. Do not use the herb if you have ulcer
2. Raw garlic or overdoses may cause irritation of or even damage to the digestive tract
3. PLease consult with your doctor before taking garlic if you are taking blood thiner medication
4. It may cause allergic effect to some people
5. Etc.

Healthy Happy Herbs
A Beginner's Guide To Herbs And
Herb Gardening, Step by step


Super foods Library, Eat Yourself Healthy With The Best of the Best Nature Has to Offer

For the world most popular herbs list, visit http://theworldmostpopularherbs.blogspot.com/2011/10/world-most-popular-herbs-health.html
other health articles, please visit http://medicaladvisorjournals.blogspot.com/

Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14757128
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20924970
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22066106
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19823037
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18800351
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20594781
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19573556
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11238805
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21033626
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11238807
(11) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18361751
(12) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21322286
(13) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22194081

He Shou Wu (Polygonum multiflorum or Fallopia multiflora) Health Benefits and Side Effectss

http://taoofmedicine.com/wp-content/gallery/herbal-medicine/wild-he-shou-wu.jpg

He Shou wu is also known as Chinese Knotweed, genus Fallopia, belonging to Polygonaceae, native to central and southern China. It has been used in traditional Chinese medicine in treating hyperlipemia, neurasthenia, split personality, premature white hair, nerve injuries, skin wind rash, constipation, etc.

Health benefits
1. Hepatoprotection
In the evaluation of the water extracts (w/v:1/10) of Polygonum multiflorum(WEP) and its antioxidative property on carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver damage in rats found that WEP may be effective in attenuating liver damage by reducing lipid peroxidation as well as by positively modulating inflammation, according to "Hepatoprotection of emodin and Polygonum multiflorum against CCl(4)-induced liver injury" by Lee BH, Huang YY, Duh PD, Wu SC.(1)

2. Hyperlipidemia
In the assessment of Raw and processed Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR) and its effect on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), hyperlipidemia or related diseases found that raw PMR might have more satisfactory effects in clinic treatment of NAFLD or hyperlipidemia characterized by the elevation of cholesterol than processed PMR, according to "Lipid regulation effects of Polygoni Multiflori Radix, its processed products and its major substances on steatosis human liver cell line L02" by Wang M, Zhao R, Wang W, Mao X, Yu J.(2)

3. Liver cancer
In the investigation of the water extracts of raw and processed Polygonum multiflorum (RWE or PWE) were obtained by boiling them in water and its effect on human liver cells found that 95% ethanol-eluted material of Polygonum multiflorum and emodin had a similar significant effect of S phase arrest and all could induce L02 cell apoptosis, according to "[Effects of extract of Polygonum multiflorum on cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of human liver cell line L02][Article in Chinese]" by Zhang RC, Liu B, Sun ZX, Xu DY.(3)

4. Cognitive disorders
In the observation of 15 herbs for the screening have been traditionally used in Ayurvedic medicine or in Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of cognitive disorders clinically found that extract of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (root) can lower Aβ generation by modulating APP processing in the N2a-SwedAPP cell line. These results corroborate the traditional use of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (root) for the treatment of cognitive disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD), according to "In vitro screening on amyloid precursor protein modulation of plants used in Ayurvedic and Traditional Chinese medicine for memory improvement" by Liu LF, Durairajan SS, Lu JH, Koo I, Li M.(4)

5. Breast cancer
In the study of The root of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb and its effect on the proliferation of certain types of cancer cells found that PME inhibited MCF-7 cell proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase and promoting cell apoptosis. The effects of PME on MCF-7 cells were associated with the modulation of the expression levels of proteins involved in the cell cycle and apoptosis. These data suggest that PME has promise as a treatment against breast cancer by inhibiting the proliferation of cancer cells, according to "Anti-proliferative effect of an extract of the root of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and the possible mechanisms" by Chen HS, Liu Y, Lin LQ, Zhao JL, Zhang CP, Jin JC, Wang L, Bai MH, Wang YC, Liu M, Shen BZ.(5)

6. Promoting hair growth
In the assessment of Polygonum multiflorum and it has traditionally been used for treating patients suffering from baldness and hair loss in East Asia effect found that Polygonum multiflorum extract promoted hair growth by inducing anagen phase in telogenic C57BL6/N mice. In Polygonum multiflorum extract treated group, we observed increase in the number and the size of hair follicles that are considered as evidence for anagen phase induction. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that earlier induction of β-catenin and Shh were observed in Polygonum multiflorum extract treated group compared to that in control group, according to "Topical application of Polygonum multiflorum extract induces hair growth of resting hair follicles through upregulating Shh and β-catenin expression in C57BL/6 mice" by Park HJ, Zhang N, Park DK.(6)

7. Antioxidant activities
In the comparison of the antioxidant activities of the extracts from Zhi-heshouwu and Heshouwu found that the extract from Zhi-heshouwu presented a higher 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity than the extract from Heshouwu, with IC50 values of 0.43 mg/mL and 2.9 mg/mL, respectively (p < 0.05). The hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of the two were similar (IC50 0.98 mg/mL and 1.45 mg/mL, respectively; p > 0.05). 5-Hydroxymethyl-furfural, a main compound in the extract of Zhi-heshouwu, showed IC50 values for scavenging DPPH radicals and hydroxyl radicals of 1.6 mg/mL and 0.24 mg/mL, respectively, according to "In vitro antioxidant activities of maillard reaction products produced in the steaming process of Polygonum multiflorum root" by Liu Z, Liu Y, Chao Z, Song Z, Wang C, Lu A.(7)

8. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)
In the investigation of the protective effects of preconditioning human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with Polygonum multiflorum stilbeneglycoside (PMS) under anoxia/reoxygenation (A/R), and the mechanism of protection found that PMS preincubation resulted in the enhancement of antioxidant activity and anti-lipid peroxidation. The NO/cGMP/cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) signaling pathway was involved in the effect of PMS on HUVECs, according to "The protective effects of Polygonum multiflorum stilbeneglycoside preconditioning in an ischemia/reperfusion model of HUVECs" by Liu LP, Liao ZP, Yin D, Li WD, Liu D, Li Q, Huang QR, Yang YF, He M.(8)

9. Diabetes
In the analyzing 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-d-glucoside (TSG), an active component extract from Polygonum multiflorum Thunb and its antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects found that the protective mechanisms of TSG on diabetic nephropathy are involved in the alleviation of oxidative stress injury and overexpression of COX-2 and TGF-β1, partially via activation of SIRT1, according to "Tetrahydroxystilbene glucoside ameliorates diabetic nephropathy in rats: involvement of SIRT1 and TGF-β1 pathway" by Li C, Cai F, Yang Y, Zhao X, Wang C, Li J, Jia Y, Tang J, Liu Q.(9)

10. Androgen-dependent diseases
In the observation of 50% ethanol extract of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb (Polygoni Multiflori Radix; Polygonaceae) and its effect on against androgen-dependent diseases including benign prostatic hyperplasia found that although emodin showed considerably less potent inhibitory activity than riboflavin, the inhibitory activity of the compound was more potent than that of alizarin (1,2-dihydroxyanthraquinone), an anthraquinone-type positive control. Also, anthraquinone itself was substantially inactive against 5alpha-reductase, in dicating that the hydroxyl group on the structure of emodin is an important structural moiety for displaying inhibitory activity, according to "5alpha-reductase inhibitory components as antiandrogens from herbal medicine" by Cho CH, Bae JS, Kim YU.(10)

11. Alzheimer's disease (AD)
In the observation of the clinical effect of compound Polygonum multiflorum extract on Alzheimer's disease (AD) found that the total effective rate of 93.33% in the compound Polygonum multiflorum extract treatment group was better than 73.33% in the Chinese herb control group and 68.97% in the western medicine control group (P < 0.01), according to "[Effect of compound Polygonum multiflorum extract on Alzheimer's disease].[Article in Chinese]" by Chen L, Huang J, Xue L.(11)

12. Anti-HIV activities
In the classification of the 70 % EtOH extract of Polygonum cuspidatum and its inhibitory action against HIV-1-induced syncytium formation found that compounds 1, 13, 14, and 16 demonstrated fairly strong antiviral activity against HIV-1-induced cytopathic effects in C8166 lymphocytes at non-cytotoxic concentrations, with EC (50) values of 4.37 +/- 1.96 microg/mL, 19.97 +/- 5.09, 14.4 +/- 1.34 microg/mL, and 11.29 +/- 6.26 microg/mL and therapeutic index (TI) values of 8.12, > 10.02, > 13.89, and > 17.71, respectively, according to "Anti-HIV activities of the compounds isolated from Polygonum cuspidatum and Polygonum multiflorum" by Lin HW, Sun MX, Wang YH, Yang LM, Yang YR, Huang N, Xuan LJ, Xu YM, Bai DL, Zheng YT, Xiao K.(12)

13. Etc.

Side Effects
1. Overdose may be toxic and cause liver damage
2. The herb may cause irritation of or even damage to the digestive tract
3. Allergic effect
4. Do not take the herb in children or if you are pregnant without consulting with your related field specialist
5. Etc.

Healthy Happy Herbs
A Beginner's Guide To Herbs And
Herb Gardening, Step by step


Super foods Library, Eat Yourself Healthy With The Best of the Best Nature Has to Offer

For the world most popular herbs list, visit http://theworldmostpopularherbs.blogspot.com/2011/10/world-most-popular-herbs-health.html
other health articles, please visit http://medicaladvisorjournals.blogspot.com/

Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22103790
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22120683
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20550878
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21920424
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21874249
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21419834
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21366046
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20228828
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20854812
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20633525
(11) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20622335
(12) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20112182

Feverfew (Tanacetum Parthenium) Health Benefits and Side Effects


Feverfew is a small bush with scene leaves, genus Tanacetum, belonging to family Asteraceae and native to Euro-Asia. The heral plant has been used in traditional and herbal medicine to treat fever, headaches, migraine headaches, arthritis, stomach aches, toothaches, insect bites, infertility, problems with menstruation and labor during childbirth etc.

Health benefits
1. Migraine headaches
In the evaluation of Feverfew's effectiveness in treating migraine headaches over thousand of year in herbal medicine, research found that sublingual feverfew/ginger appears safe and effective as a first-line abortive treatment for a population of migraineurs who frequently experience mild headache prior to the onset of moderate to severe headache. Feverfew/ginger was generally well tolerated with oral numbness and nausea being the most frequently occurring adverse event, according to "A double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study of sublingual feverfew and ginger (LipiGesic™ M) in the treatment of migraine" by Cady RK, Goldstein J, Nett R, Mitchell R, Beach ME, Browning R.(1)

2. Anti cancers
In the investigation of The medicinal herb feverfew [Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz-Bip.] effectiveness in treating against tumor, and inflammatory properties found that apigenin and luteolin might have moderate to weak synergistic effects with parthenolide on the inhibition of cancer cell growth of Hs605T, MCF-7, and SiHa, according to "Antiproliferative activities of parthenolide and golden feverfew extract against three human cancer cell lines" by Wu C, Chen F, Rushing JW, Wang X, Kim HJ, Huang G, Haley-Zitlin V, He G.(2)

3. Anti-inflammatory activity
In the assessment of a parthenolide-depleted extract of Feverfew (PD-Feverfew) and to determine its effectiveness as an anti-inflammatory agent found that PD-Feverfew extracts have potent anti-inflammatory activity suggesting that this botanical would be efficacious in relieving inflammation without inducing immune sensitization, according to "Anti-inflammatory activity of parthenolide-depleted Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium)" by Sur R, Martin K, Liebel F, Lyte P, Shapiro S, Southall M.(3)

4. Skin protective agent
In the determination of Feverfew antioxidants and their effect in protecting skin from UV irradiation and external aggression found that through the ability to scavenge free radicals, preserve endogenous antioxidant levels, reduce DNA damage and induce DNA repair enzymes, which can help repair damaged DNA, parthenolide-depleted extract of Feverfew may protect skin from the numerous external aggressions encountered daily by the skin and reduce the damage to oxidatively challenged skin, according to "Parthenolide-depleted Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) protects skin from UV irradiation and external aggression" by Martin K, Sur R, Liebel F, Tierney N, Lyte P, Garay M, Oddos T, Anthonavage M, Shapiro S, Southall M.(4)

5. Blood platelet aggregation
In the research of extracts of feverfew and parthenolide and theirs effect on blood platelet aggregation in-vitro found that Both feverfew extract and parthenolide were more effective as inhibitors of the [14C]5-HT secretion and aggregation induced by some agents and not others, and were most effective as inhibitors of the [14C]5-HT secretion (but not the aggregation) induced by PMA. This suggests that the effects of feverfew/parthenolide on the protein kinase C pathway warrants further study, according to "A comparison of the effects of an extract of feverfew and parthenolide, a component of feverfew, on human platelet activity in-vitro" by Groenewegen WA, Heptinstall S.(5)

5. Antiserotonergic activity
In the comparison of the extracts of Tanacetum parthenium (Feverfew) and parthenolide and to determine theirs 5-Hydroxytryptamine-inhibiting activity found that the extract when degraded thermally upto 10% could significantly block the 5-HT receptors and neuronal release of 5-HT, however, on further degradation it lost its inhibitory capacity markedly. Similar results were observed in rats fed orally with undergraded and degraded Feverfew powder and injected i.p. with parthenolide. Feverfew powder was more effective than any of its extracts or pure parthenolide, according to "5-Hydroxytryptamine-inhibiting property of Feverfew: role of parthenolide content" by Mittra S, Datta A, Singh SK, Singh A.(6)

6. Antibacterial activity
In the determination of Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L.) (Asteraceae), a medicinal plant traditionally and its essential oil antibacterial effectiveness found that the oil of Ardahan sample showed the highest activity on S. aureus (125 microg/mL) which is likewise two fold concentration of the positive control chloramphenicol (62.5 microg/mL). DPPH scavenging activity was 59.3% of the oil from Davutpasa at 15 mg/mL concentration. When compared to positive control alpha-tocopherol (94.6%) Savşat oil (28.2%) showed low and Davutpasa oil showed medium DPPH scavenging activity. All of the oils showed toxicity to Vibrio fischeri in the TLC-bioluminescence assay, according to "Antibacterial activity and the variation of Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz Bip. essential oils from Turkey" by Polatoglu K, Demirci F, Demirci B, Gören N, Başer KH.(7)

8. Skin cancer
In the evaluation of Parthenolide, an active component of feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) and it inhibits proliferation and kills various cancer cells found that the melanoma cells from vertical growth phase and melanocytes were less susceptible to parthenolide-induced cell death than metastatic cells when drug concentration was at least 6 mumol/l. Reactive oxygen species level was not significantly increased in melanoma cells. However, preincubation of parthenolide with the thiol nucleophile N-acetyl-cysteine protected melanoma cells from parthenolide-induced cell death suggesting the reaction with intracellular thiols as the mechanism responsible for parthenolide activity. In conclusion, the observed anticancer activity makes parthenolide an attractive drug candidate for further testing in melanoma therapy, according to "Parthenolide, a sesquiterpene lactone from the medical herb feverfew, shows anticancer activity against human melanoma cells in vitro" by Lesiak K, Koprowska K, Zalesna I, Nejc D, Düchler M, Czyz M.(8)

9. Apigenin and luteolin
In the classification of the medicinal herb feverfew [Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz-Bip.] and its parthenolide, a sesquiterpene lactone on anti-migraine, anti-tumor, and anti-inflammatory properties found that feverfew ethanolic extract inhibited the growth of all three types of cancer cells with a half-effective concentration (EC50) of 1.5 mg/mL against Hs605T, 2.1 mg/mL against MCF-7, and 0.6 mg/mL against SiHa as a result of its components apigenin and luteolin, according to "Antiproliferative activities of parthenolide and golden feverfew extract against three human cancer cell lines" by Wu C, Chen F, Rushing JW, Wang X, Kim HJ, Huang G, Haley-Zitlin V, He G.(9)

10. Antioxidants
In the investigation of the constant exposure of the skin to oxidative stress results in damage to cellular DNA and cell membrane lipids and proteins found that soy, feverfew, mushroom extracts, teas, Coffea arabica (CoffeeBerry), Pinus pinaster (Pycnogenol), and Polypodium leucotomos have promising efficacy in the topical treatment of oxidative stress-induced dermatoses, according to "Natural antioxidants" by Berson DS.(10)

11. Colorectal cancer
In the research of Parthenolide, the main components of Feverfew and its apoptosis effect in cancer cells found that Parthenolide rapidly depleted intracellular thiols, including both free glutathione (GSH) and protein thiols. Concomitantly, there were dose- and time-dependent increases in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and calcium levels. Increased expression of GRP78 protein, a marker for endoplasmic reticulum stress was also detected. All these changes preceded parthenolide-induced apoptotic cell death, according to "Critical roles of intracellular thiols and calcium in parthenolide-induced apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells" by Zhang S, Ong CN, Shen HM.(11)

12. Antithrombotic effect
In the investigation of The effects of an extract of the plant feverfew on the interaction of platelets with surfaces coated with human collagens of type III and IV (CIII, CIV), and on the integrity of the endothelial cell (EC) monolayer found that that feverfew may have antithrombotic potential in addition to its claimed benefit in fever, migraine and arthritis, according to "Feverfew--an antithrombotic drug?" by Loesche W, Mazurov AV, Voyno-Yasenetskaya TA, Groenewegen WA, Heptinstall S, Repin VS.(12)

13.
In the demonstration of the inhibitory effect on inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinase production from stimulated synovial cells derived from rheumatoid arthritis patients found that Parthenolide is one of the main sesquiterpense lactones responsible for the bioactivities of feverfew and recently reported to inhibit NFkappaB activation. Parthenolide has ameliorated the severity of joint destruction in experimental animal model. Based upon these findings, NFkappaB may be one of important therapeutic target for arthritis, according to "[Application of NFkappaB inhibitor for arthritis].[Article in Japanese]" by Tomita T, Kunugiza Y, Nomura K, Morimoto D, Kuroda S, Yoshikawa H.(13)

14. Etc.

Side effects
1. Feverfew may interact with other medicine. If you are taking blood thin medicine, please consult with your doctor, according to "Herbal medicinals: selected clinical considerations focusing on known or potential drug-herb interactions" by Miller LG.(a)
2. Do not take the herb, if you are pregnant or breast feeding with out approval of related field specialist.
3. Over doses can cause abdominal pain, indigestion, gas, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and nervousness.
4. Feverfew may cause allergic effect to some people with allergies to chamomile, ragweed.
5. Etc.

Healthy Happy Herbs
A Beginner's Guide To Herbs And
Herb Gardening, Step by step


Super foods Library, Eat Yourself Healthy With The Best of the Best Nature Has to Offer

For the world most popular herbs list, visit http://theworldmostpopularherbs.blogspot.com/2011/10/world-most-popular-herbs-health.html
other health articles, please visit http://medicaladvisorjournals.blogspot.com/

Wednesday, November 23, 2011

Fenugreek (Trigonella Foenum-Graecum) Health Benefits and Side Effects


Fenugreeks are plants with spicy favor in their seeds, genus Trigonella, belonging to the family Fabaceae, native to the Middle East. The plant is cultivated worldwide as food sources. In herbal medicine, fenugreeks have been used to reduce cholesterol, promote breast milk supply, enhance stomach function in food absorption and to treat indigestion, delayed labor, common cold, etc.

Health benefits
1. Metabolic disorders
In the investigation of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) and its effect on metabolic disorder found that fenugreek dose-dependently reduced the hepatic triglyceride and total cholesterol levels. Fenugreek also dose-dependently increased the excretion of cholesterol and total bile acids into the feces, according to "Dose-dependent effects, safety and tolerability of fenugreek in diet-induced metabolic disorders in rats" by Muraki E, Hayashi Y, Chiba H, Tsunoda N, Kasono K(1)

2. Diabetes
Fenugreek enhances the stomach function in foods absorption as a result of its effect on carbohydrate metabolism. In a study of "Fenugreek bread: a treatment for diabetes mellitus" by Losso JN, Holliday DL, Finley JW, Martin RJ, Rood JC, Yu Y, Greenway FL.(2) researchers found that fenugreek flour impacts bread quality negatively. The bread maintained fenugreek's functional property of reducing insulin resistance. Acceptable baked products can be prepared with added fenugreek, which will reduce insulin resistance and treat type 2 diabetes.

3. Hypertension
In the research of Fenugreek and its effect on severe complications of diabetes such as obesity and hypertension found that this formulation Om3/terp exhibit attractive properties and can, therefore, be considered for future application in the development of anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive and hypolipidemic foods, according to "Inhibitory potential of omega-3 fatty and fenugreek essential oil on key enzymes of carbohydrate-digestion and hypertension in diabetes rats" by Hamden K, Keskes H, Belhaj S, Mnafgui K, Feki A, Allouche N.(3)

4. Lactation
In the assessment of galactogogues based on herbs and other natural substances (fenugreek, galega and milk thistle) and theirs effect on breast milk production found that doses for galactogogic effect, and recommendation for breastfeeding, according to "Safety and efficacy of galactogogues: substances that induce, maintain and increase breast milk production" by Zuppa AA, Sindico P, Orchi C, Carducci C, Cardiello V, Romagnoli C.(4)

5. Anti cancers
In the demonstration of extract (FE) from the seeds of the plant Trigonella foenum graecum, commonly called fenugreek and its cytotoxic effect found that death of cancer cells occurs despite growth stimulatory pathways being simultaneously upregulated (phosphorylated) by FE. Thus, these studies add another biologically active agent to our armamentarium of naturally occurring agents with therapeutic potential, according to "Fenugreek: a naturally occurring edible spice as an anticancer agent" by Shabbeer S, Sobolewski M, Anchoori RK, Kachhap S, Hidalgo M, Jimeno A, Davidson N, Carducci MA, Khan SR.(5)

6. Colon cancer
In the evaluation of the Fenugreek mechanism of tumor growth inhibition of diosgenin in HT-29 human colon cancer cells found that diosgenin induced apoptosis in HT-29 cells at least in part by inhibition of bcl-2 and by induction of caspase-3 protein expression. On the basis of these findings, the fenugreek constituent diosgenin seems to have potential as a novel colon cancer preventive agent, according to "Diosgenin, a steroid saponin of Trigonella foenum graecum (Fenugreek), inhibits azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci formation in F344 rats and induces apoptosis in HT-29 human colon cancer cells" by Raju J, Patlolla JM, Swamy MV, Rao CV.(6)

7. Breast cancer
In the evaluation of the Chemopreventive activities of Fenugreek seeds as a potential protective effect against 7,12-dimethylbenz(alpha)anthracene (DMBA)-induced breast cancer found that Fenugreek seeds' extract significantly inhibited the DMBA-induced mammary hyperplasia and decreased its incidence. Epidemiological studies also implicate apoptosis as a mechanism that might mediate the Fenugreek's anti-breast cancer protective effects, according to "Chemopreventive activities of Trigonella foenum graecum (Fenugreek) against breast cancer" by Amin A, Alkaabi A, Al-Falasi S, Daoud SA.(7)

8. Male Libido Enhancement
In the evaluation of the effect of Testofen, a standardized Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenugreek) extract and mineral formulation, on male libido (sexual drive, urge or desire) found that Testofen had a positive effect on QOL in self-reported satisfaction with muscle strength, energy and well-being but did not have an effect on mood or sleep. Serum prolactin and testosterone levels remained within the reference range. It was concluded that Testofen demonstrated a significant positive effect on physiological aspects of libido and may assist to maintain normal healthy testosterone levels, according to "Physiological Aspects of Male Libido Enhanced by Standardized Trigonella foenum-graecum Extract and Mineral Formulation" by Steels E, Rao A, Vitetta L.(8)

9. Sperm abnormalities
In the identification the reproductive effect of oral treatment of fenugreek steroids, designated F(steroids), to diabetic rats during 30 days found that F(steroids) administration to surviving diabetic rats significantly decreased the sperm shape abnormality and improved the sperm count. Above all, the potential protective action of reproductive systems was approved by the histological study of testis and epididymis, according to "Potential protective effect on key steroidogenesis and metabolic enzymes and sperm abnormalities by fenugreek steroids in testis and epididymis of surviving diabetic rats" by Hamden K, Jaouadi B, Carreau S, Aouidet A, El-Fazaa S, Gharbi N, Elfeki A.(9)

10. Antioxidants
In the study of total phenolics and antioxidant activities of fenugreek, green tea, black tea, grape seed, ginger, rosemary, gotu kola, and ginkgo extracts found that The total phenolics of the plant extracts, determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, ranged from 24.8 to 92.5 mg of chlorogenic acid equivalent/g dry material. The antioxidant activities of methanolic extracts determined by conjugated diene measurement of methyl linoleate were 3.4-86.3%. The antioxidant activity of the extracts using chicken fat by an oxidative stability instrument (4.6-10.2 h of induction time), according to "Total phenolics and antioxidant activities of fenugreek, green tea, black tea, grape seed, ginger, rosemary, gotu kola, and ginkgo extracts, vitamin E, and tert-butylhydroquinone" by Rababah TM, Hettiarachchy NS, Horax R.(10)

11. Hypocholesterolemic and antioxidative effect
In the comparison of the effect of natural diosgenin extracted from fenugreek seeds with the pure standard diosgenin, plus chromium chloride (CrCl3) supplementation on high-cholesterol fed Japanese quails found that the combined diosgenin and CrCl3 supplementation to high-cholesterol fed quails might induce a protective effect by both regulating lipid and antioxidative damage, according to "The hypocholesterolemic and antioxidative effect of dietary diosgenin and chromium chloride supplementation on high-cholesterol fed Japanese quails" by Al-Matubsi HY, Nasrat NA, Oriquat GA, Abu-Samak M, Al-Mzain KA, Salim M.(11)

12. Anti inflammatory effect
In the investigation of diosgenin found in Fenugreek and its inflammatory effects in adipose tissues cause insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes, found that t fenugreek ameliorated diabetes by promoting adipocyte differentiation and inhibiting inflammation in adipose tissues, and its effects are mediated by diosgenin. Fenugreek containing diosgenin may be useful for ameliorating the glucose metabolic disorder associated with obesity, according to "Diosgenin present in fenugreek improves glucose metabolism by promoting adipocyte differentiation and inhibiting inflammation in adipose tissues" by Uemura T, Hirai S, Mizoguchi N, Goto T, Lee JY, Taketani K, Nakano Y, Shono J, Hoshino S, Tsuge N, Narukami T, Takahashi N, Kawada T.(12)

13. Cataractogenesis
In the evaluation of the anticataract potential of Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn seeds (fenugreek) in selenite-induced in vitro and in vivo cataract found that a significant restoration in the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (P < 0.01), catalase, (P < 0.01), glutathione peroxidase (P < 0.01), and glutathione-S-transferase (P < 0.01) was observed in the T. foenum-graecum supplemented group as compared to control. In vivo, none of the eyes was found with nuclear cataract in treated group as opposed to 72.5% in the control group, according to "Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenugreek) protects against selenite-induced oxidative stress in experimental cataractogenesis" by Gupta SK, Kalaiselvan V, Srivastava S, Saxena R, Agrawal SS.(13)

14. Etc.

Side Effects
1. Do not use the herb if you are pregnant without approval from the related field specialist
2. It may cause gastrointestinal distress such as diarrhea, gas, and bloating if overdose
3. Prolonged usage may cause skin sensitization and irritation.
4. The herb may interact with certain medication
5. It may cay cause allergic effect to some people including nasal congestion, coughing, wheezing, facial swelling, etc.
6. Etc.


Healthy Happy Herbs
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For the world most popular herbs list, visit http://theworldmostpopularherbs.blogspot.com/2011/10/world-most-popular-herbs-health.html
other health articles, please visit http://medicaladvisorjournals.blogspot.com/

Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22188728
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19857068
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22142357
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20816003
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19197146
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15298963
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15936223
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21312304
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20507258
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15291494
(11) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21902054
(12) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20540147
(13) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19823776