Saturday, October 22, 2011

Black Cohosh (Actaea racemos ) Health Benefits and Side Effects

[Medical Advisor journals] [The world healthy foods List] [The World Most Popular Herbs]

Black Cohosh is a herbaceous perennial plant, genus Actaea, belonging to the family Ranunculaceae, native to eastern North America. The herb has been used in traditional medicine as analgesic, sedative, diuretic, emmenagogue anti-inflammatory agent and to treat rheumatism, symptoms of menopause, uterine cramps and muscle pain, etc.. Native Americans have used the root of the herb to treat snake bite.

Health benefits
1. Alternative to hormone replacement therapy
Black cohosh contains high amount of phytoestrogen of which helps to occupied the estrogen receptors or enhances the estrogen levels in the women in the stage of menopause, thus it may be considered as alternative to estrogen therapy, according to the study of "Black cohosh: an alternative therapy for menopause?" by Mahady GB, Fabricant D, Chadwick LR, Dietz B., posted in PubMed(1)

2. Climacteric complaints
Isopropanolic extract of Black Cohosh have inhibited the property of hot flashes, sweating, sleep problems, and anxietyfor most of women with breast cancer had undergone radiation therapy, according to the study of "Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) in tamoxifen-treated breast cancer patients with climacteric complaints - a prospective observational study" by Rostock M, Fischer J, Mumm A, Stammwitz U, Saller R, Bartsch HH., posted in PubMed(2)

3. Vasomotor symptoms
Black Cohosh hass exerted the property of estrogenic effect in treating symptoms of hot flashes of women with deficiency of estrogen, as a result of natural or surgical menopause, according to the study of "[Efficacy and safety of Black cohosh (Actaea/Cimicifuga racemosa) in the treatment of vasomotor symptoms--review of clinical trials].[Article in Polish]" by Kanadys WM, Leszczyńska-Gorzelak B, Oleszczuk J., posted in PubMed(3)

4. Tumors
Beside is proven in some study of the use of Black Cohosh to treat symptoms of menopause, some researchers suggested that black cohosh also seems not to exhibit phytoestrogenic activity and is in fact possibly an inhibitor of tumor growth, according to the study of "Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa [L.] Nutt.): safety and efficacy for cancer patients" by Walji R, Boon H, Guns E, Oneschuk D, Younus J., posted in PubMed(4)

5. Breast Cancer
Triterpene glycoside actein from black cohosh has exhibited the activity of inhibition of the growth of human breast cancer cells as a result of activating the genes that enhance apoptosis and repressed cell cycle genes, according to the study of "Gene expression analysis of the mechanisms whereby black cohosh inhibits human breast cancer cell growth" by Einbond LS, Su T, Wu HA, Friedman R, Wang X, Jiang B, Hagan T, Kennelly EJ, Kronenberg F, Weinstein IB., posted in PubMed(5)

6. Cancer prvention
Back Cohosh contains high amount of natural phenolic compounds of Black such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, lignans and others have exerted to cancer cells apoptosis by arresting cell cycle, regulating carcinogen metabolism and ontogenesis expression, inhibiting DNA binding and cell adhesion, migration, proliferation or differentiation, and blocking signaling pathways, according to the study of "Natural phenolic compounds from medicinal herbs and dietary plants: potential use for cancer prevention" by Huang WY, Cai YZ, Zhang Y., posted in PubMed(6)

7. Antioxidants
Polyphenols in Black cohosh may be considered as an antioxidant which help to fight against the forming of free radicals cause of DNA damage and guarding our body against foreign invasion such as bacteria and virus, according to the study of "Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa L.) protects against menadione-induced DNA damage through scavenging of reactive oxygen species: bioassay-directed isolation and characterization of active principles" by Burdette JE, Chen SN, Lu ZZ, Xu H, White BE, Fabricant DS, Liu J, Fong HH, Farnsworth NR, Constantinou AI, Van Breemen RB, Pezzuto JM, Bolton JL., posted in PubMed(7)

8. Osteoblasts
Isopropanolic extract (iCR) from (black cohosh) beside is best known for its use in alternative to treatment of menopausal symptoms, it also stimulates osteoprotegerin production by human osteoblasts of that contribute to the positive skeletal effects, acording to the study of "Isopropanolic extract of black cohosh stimulates osteoprotegerin production by human osteoblasts" by Viereck V, Gründker C, Friess SC, Frosch KH, Raddatz D, Schoppet M, Nisslein T, Emons G, Hofbauer LC., posted in PubMed(8)

9. Prostate cancer
Black cohosh extract inhibited the androgen-sensitive LNCaP and androgen-insensitive PC-3 and DU 145 prostate cancer cells with the induction of apoptosis, according to the study of "Apoptosis of human prostate androgen-dependent and -independent carcinoma cells induced by an isopropanolic extract of black cohosh involves degradation of cytokeratin (CK) 18" by Hostanska K, Nisslein T, Freudenstein J, Reichling J, Saller R., posted in PubMed(9).

10. Anti-inflammation
Cimicifuga racemosa (Actaea racemosa, black cohosh)have exerted inflammatory activity by inhibiting nitric oxide production by reducing iNOS expression without affecting activity of the enzyme, according to the study of "Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthesis by Cimicifuga racemosa (Actaea racemosa, black cohosh) extracts in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages" by Schmid D, Gruber M, Woehs F, Prinz S, Etzlstorfer B, Prucker C, Fuzzati N, Kopp B, Moeslinger T., posted in PubMed(10)

11. Anti- osteoporosis
Cimicifuga heracleifolia (CH) may be used to treat osteoporosis as its property of prevention of OVX-induced bone loss in mice study, according to "Evaluation of the Antiosteoporotic Potential of Cimicifuga heracleifolia in Female Mice" by Ahn BS, Yang M, Jang H, Lee HJ, Moon C, Kim JC, Jung U, Jo SK, Jang JS, Kim SH., posted in PubMed(11)

12. Etc.

Side Effects
1. Autoimmune hepatitis
There is some reports that the use of black cohosh may cause Autoimmune hepatitis, according to the study of "Autoimmune hepatitis associated with the use of black cohosh: a case study" by Cohen SM, O'Connor AM, Hart J, Merel NH, Te HS., posted in PubMed(a)
2. Coagulation activation and fluid retention
Black cohosh may cause Coagulation activation and fluid retention, according to the study of "Coagulation activation and fluid retention associated with the use of black cohosh: a case study" by Zimmermann R, Witte A, Voll RE, Strobel J, Frieser M., posted in PubMed(b)
3. Black cohosh should be used with caution during pregnancy
4. Genral side effects of black cohosh includes headache, stomach upset, nausea, vomiting and dizziness in some people and if overdose
5. Etc.



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