Thursday, January 5, 2012

Goldenrod (Solidago virgaurea)Health Benefits and Side Effects

Goldenrod, is one of the flowering plants, genus Solidago, belonging to the family Asteraceae, native to to Mexico, South America, and Eurasia. The herb has been used in traditional medicine to treat bladder inflammation, arthritis, allergies, colds and flu, kidney stones, etc.

Health benefits
1. Antibacterial activities
In the investigation of Nine clerodane diterpenes, solidagoic acids C-I (1-7), cleroda-3,13(14)-dien-16,15:18,19-diolide (8) and cleroda-3,13(14)-dien-15,16:18,19-diolide (9) were isolated and characterised from the ethanol-ethyl acetate (1:1) extract of Solidago virgaurea found that Several displayed moderate antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, acording to "Antibacterial clerodane diterpenes from Goldenrod (Solidago virgaurea)" by Starks CM, Williams RB, Goering MG, O'Neil-Johnson M, Norman VL, Hu JF, Garo E, Hough GW, Rice SM, Eldridge GR.(1)

2. Anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic effects
In the assessment of A combination of Populus tremula, Solidago virgaurea and Fraxinus excelsior and theirs spasmolytic, antihypertensive and diuretic effects found that in vitro and especially in vivo studies proved its anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic properties, often comparable to non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, but with little or no side effects, according to "A combination of Populus tremula, Solidago virgaurea and Fraxinus excelsior as an anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic drug. A short review" by von Kruedener S, Schneider W, Elstner EF.(2)

3. Antioxidative properties
In the evaluation of macromolecular glycoconjugates from selected herbal plants of Asteraceae family: Achillea millefolium L., Arnica montana L., Echinacea purpurea L., Solidago virgaurea L., Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert., and Conyza canadensis L. protect platelet proteins against nitrative and oxidative damage induced by peroxynitrite, found that that the compounds from herbal plants: A. millefolium, A. montana, E. purpurea, C. recutita, S. virgaurea, possess antioxidative properties and protect platelet proteins against peroxynitrite toxicity in vitro, similar to the glycoconjugates from C. canadensis. However, in the comparative studies, the polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates from selected tested medicinal plants were not found to be more effective antioxidant, than the solution of pure resveratrol, according to "The effect of polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates from selected medicinal plants of Asteraceae family on the peroxynitrite-induced changes in blood platelet proteins" by Saluk-Juszczak J, Pawlaczyk I, Olas B, Kołodziejczyk J, Ponczek M, Nowak P, Tsirigotis-Wołoszczak M, Wachowicz B, Gancarz R.(3)

4. Kidney stone
In the observation of goldenrod (Solidago virgaurea L.) and its effect on the treatment of urinary tract diseases found that The use of such herbal preparations with a rather complex action spectrum (anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, diuretic, antispasmodic, analgesic) is especially recommended for treatment of infections and inflammations, to prevent formation of kidney stones and to help remove urinary gravel. This therapy is safe at a reasonable price and does not show drug-related side-effects, according to "[Goldenrod--a classical exponent in the urological phytotherapy].[Article in German]" by Melzig MF.(4)

5. Anti Prostatic tumor
In the investigation of Solidago virgaurea (goldenrod) and its effect on prostatic diseases found that the growth of the tumor was significantly suppressed by the G-100 fraction at 5 mg/kg without any apparent side effects. Therefore, S. virgaurea is considered to be promising as an antineoplastic medicine with minimal toxicities, according to "Antineoplastic activity of Solidago virgaurea on prostatic tumor cells in an SCID mouse model" by
Gross SC, Goodarzi G, Watabe M, Bandyopadhyay S, Pai SK, Watabe K.(5)

6. Bladder dysfunction
In the observation of Extracts from Rhois aromatica and Solidaginis virgaurea inhibit rat and human bladder contraction.found that extracts from Rhois aromatica and Solidaginis virgaurea inhibit muscarinic receptor-mediated contraction of rat and human bladder. While this could contribute to the beneficial effects of these extracts in patients with bladder dysfunction, such therapeutic effects remain to be demonstrated in controlled clinical studies, according to "Extracts from Rhois aromatica and Solidaginis virgaurea inhibit rat and human bladder contraction" by Borchert VE, Czyborra P, Fetscher C, Goepel M, Michel MC.(6)

7. Antifungal activities
In the Glycosides of polygalacic acid (2 beta,3 beta,16 alpha,23-tetrahydroxy-olean-12-ene-28-oic acid) is isolated from the aerial parts of Solidago virgaurea and other herb found that The antifungal action can be influenced the variation of the etherglycosidically bonded carbohydrate units at C-3 as well as of the acylglycosidically bonded oligosaccharide at C-28 of the aglycone, according to "Cytotoxicity of triterpenoid saponins. Part 2: Relationships between the structures of glycosides of polygalacic acid and their activities against pathogenic Candida species" by Bader G, Seibold M, Tintelnot K, Hiller K.(7)

8. Immunomodulatory and antitumoral effects
In the study of Genuine saponins of Solidago virgaurea L., Heteropappus altaicus (Willd.) Novopokr., Heteropappus biennis (Ldb.) Tamamsch. and Helianthus annuus L. (Asteraceae) as well as related carbohydrate modified glycosides of polygalacic acid and echinocystic acid and some commercial available triterpenoid saponins and theirs immunomodulating and antitumoral effects found that in vivo antitumoral effects in the allogeneic sarcoma 180 tumor model and in the syngeneic DBA/2-MC.SC-1 fibrosarcoma tumor model. In mice, treated with 1, phagocytosis of bone marrow cells and proliferation of spleen and bone marrow cells were stimulated in an ex vivo assay whereby the TNF alpha concentration in blood considerably increased compared to the control group, according to "Immunomodulatory and antitumoral effects of triterpenoid saponins" by Plohmann B, Bader G, Hiller K, Franz G.(8)

9. Antioxidative properties
In the demonstration of Aqueous-ethanolic extracts from Fraxinus excelsior, Populus tremula and Solidago virgaurea and theirs anti inflammatory effects found that The tested extracts are the components of the phytomedicine Phytodolor N (abbreviated as PD) which possesses antipyretic, analgesic, antiinflammatory and antirheumatic activity. Since several reactive oxygen species produced by the mentioned model systems are also involved in inflammatory processes, the beneficial activities of the complete drug may at least in part be due to the reported antioxidative functions of the individual components, according to " Antioxidative properties of alcoholic extracts from Fraxinus excelsior, Populus tremula and Solidago virgaurea" by Meyer B, Schneider W, Elstner EF.(9)

10. Etc.

Side effects
1. Do not use the herb if you are pregnant or have heart or kidney disease.
2. No other side effects if not overdosed


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