Sunday, January 15, 2012

Sage Health Benefits and Side Effects

Sage is a ornamental plant of the genus Salvia, belonging to family Lamiaceae, native to the Central and South America, Central, Eastern Asia and Mediterranean. The herb has been used in traditional medicine as carminative, antiperspirant, antispasmodic, astringent, antiseptic, and antibiotic agent and to calm the central nervous system, treat spasms in smooth and skeletal muscles, relieve digestive problems, regulate menstruation, etc.

Health Benefits
1. Cognitive effects
In the observation of the cholinesterase inhibitory properties and phytochemical constituents of a S. lavandulaefolia essential oil, with a double-blind, placebo-controlled, balanced crossover study assessing the effects of a single dose on cognitive performance and mood, found that oral consumption lead to improved performance of secondary memory and attention tasks, most notably at the 1-h post-dose testing session, and reduced mental fatigue and increased alertness which were more pronounced 4-h post-dose. These results extend previous observations of improved cognitive performance and mood following AChE inhibitory sage extracts and suggest that the ability of well-tolerated terpenoid-containing extracts to beneficially modulate cholinergic function and cognitive performance deserves further attention, according to "Monoterpenoid extract of sage (Salvia lavandulaefolia) with cholinesterase inhibiting properties improves cognitive performance and mood in healthy adults" by Kennedy DO, Dodd FL, Robertson BC, Okello EJ, Reay JL, Scholey AB, Haskell CF.

2. Antioxidants
In the investigation of sage teas prepared from commercially available products were chemically analyzed for polyphenolic content using liquid chromatography, for antioxidant potential, found that The FC index also showed a high correlation to these polyphenols, and could therefore be used as a screening parameter for sage tea quality. The considerable differences in polyphenolic composition and antioxidant capacity between the brands lead to a demand for quality standardization, especially if these sage teas are to be used for therapeutic purposes, according to "Antioxidant Capacity and Polyphenolic Composition as Quality Indicators for Aqueous Infusions of Salvia officinalis L. (sage tea)" by Walch SG, Tinzoh LN, Zimmermann BF, Stühlinger W, Lachenmeier DW.(2)

3. Anti diabetes
In the deiermination of The use of thujone, a monoterpene ketone often present in sage (Salvia officinalis L.) or wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L.), for the treatment of diabetes mellitus found that after oral treatment with thujone (5 mg/kg bodyweight (bw)/day for 28 days), the cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly adjusted to normal levels when compared to diabetic, untreated rats. While these results sound promising and worthy of further investigation, the well-defined profile of the adverse properties of thujone demands a cautious interpretation of these results, according to "The choice of thujone as drug for diabetes" by Lachenmeier DW, Walch SG.(3)

4. Anti cancers
In the identification of the cytotoxicity of the essential oil from sage on the squamous human cell carcinoma cell line of the oral cavity (UMSCC1) was assessed with the XTT assay
found that for the first time the ability of Salvia officinalis essential oil to inhibit human HNSCC cell growth. The therapeutic potential of sage essential oil might exceed that of its common use in otorhinolaryngology, according to "[Anticancer activity of Salvia officinalis essential oil against HNSCC cell line (UMSCC1)]. [Article in German]" by Sertel S, Eichhorn T, Plinkert PK, Efferth T.(4)

5. Alzheimer's disease
In the searching for the extracts of plants and their effect on the amelioration of AD symptoms, found that these effects are induced by extracts of a few plants of different origin like Yizhi Jiannao, Moringa oleifera (Drumstick tree), Ginkgo Biloba (Ginkgo/Maidenhair tree), Cassia obtisufolia (Sicklepod), Desmodium gangeticum (Sal Leaved Desmodium), Melissa officinalis (Lemon Balm), and Salvia officinalis (Garden sage, common sage), according to "Effect of plant extracts on Alzheimer's disease: An insight into therapeutic avenues" by Obulesu M, Rao DM.(5)

6. Menopause symptoms
In the determination od the effect of Sage (Salvia officinalis) used traditionally to treat sweating and menopausal hot flushes, as well as to alleviate associated menopausal symptoms and as a general tonic, found that a fresh sage preparation demonstrated clinical value in the treatment of hot flushes and associated menopausal symptoms, according to "First time proof of sage's tolerability and efficacy in menopausal women with hot flushes" by Bommer S, Klein P, Suter A.(6)

7. Antihyperlipidemic effects
In the investigation of the effect of sage a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial with 67 hyperlipidemic (hypercholesterolemic and/or hypertriglyceridemic) patients aged 56.4 ± 30.3 years (mean ± SD), found that The extract lowered the blood levels of total cholesterol (p < 0.001), triglyceride (p = 0.001), LDL (p = 0.004) and VLDL (p = 0.001), but increased the blood HDL levels (p < 0.001) without any significant effects on the blood levels of SGOT, SGPT and creatinine (p > 0.05) compared with the placebo group at the endpoint. No adverse effects were reported, according to "Antihyperlipidemic effects of Salvia officinalis L. leaf extract in patients with hyperlipidemia: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial" by Kianbakht S, Abasi B, Perham M, Hashem Dabaghian F.(7)

8. HIV-1 infection
In the assessment of the effects of the mint family (Lamiaceae), including sage (Salvia spp.), on antiviral activity, found that the ability of P. vulgaris aqueous extracts to inhibit early events within the HIV life cycle suggests that these extracts, or purified constituents responsible for the antiviral activity, are promising microbicides and/or antivirals against HIV-1, according to 'Inhibition of HIV-1 infection by aqueous extracts of Prunella vulgaris L" by Oh C, Price J, Brindley MA, Widrlechner MP, Qu L, McCoy JA, Murphy P, Hauck C, Maury W.(8)

9. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities
In the evaluation the anti oxidant and microbal actinities of Salvia officinalis L. oils found that the oils isolated for 2 and 3 h were stronger free radical scavengers, while with the a thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) method, the highest antioxidant values were obtained in the oils isolated for 30 min, 2 and 3 h. Hydroxyl radical scavenging and lipoxygenase activity assays showed the best results with oils isolated for 1 and 3 h. With the deoxyribose method, sage oils at concentrations <1000 mg L(-1) showed better activity than mannitol. The essential oil of S. officinalis showed very weak antimicrobial activity, according to "Salvia officinalis L. essential oils: effect of hydrodistillation time on the chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities" by Miguel G, Cruz C, Faleiro ML, Simões MT, Figueiredo AC, Barroso JG, Pedro LG.(9)

10. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects
In the investigation of The analgesic effects of the aqueous extract (10, 31.6, 100, 316, 1000 mg/kg) and butanol extract (10, 31.6, 100, 316 mg/kg) were studied using the hot-plate test for mice and the formalin-induced paw licking in rats, found that the sage leaf aqueous and butanol extracts have analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, confirming the traditional use of this plant for pain alleviation, according to "The antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Salvia officinalis leaf aqueous and butanol extracts" by Qnais EY, Abu-Dieyeh M, Abdulla FA, Abdalla SS.(10)

11. Etc.

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Side Effects
1. Do not use sage in new born(a) and children, or if you are pregnant or breast feeding without approval from the related field specialist.
2. The herb may cause allergic effect to people who are allergic to plants of the mint family
3. Long term use of the herb may increase the risk of iron or other minerals deficiency.
4. Etc.


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