Sunday, January 15, 2012

Soybean Health Benefits and Side Effects

Soybean is the genus Glycine, belonging to the family Fabaceae, one of the legumes that contains twice as much protein per acre as any other major vegetable or grain crop, native to Southeast Asia. Now, it is grown worldwide with suitable climate for commercial profit and a a healthy foods. The herb has been used in traditional medicine for the proper functioning of the bowels, heart, kidney, liver, stomach. etc.

Health benefits
A. Health Benefits according to studies
1. Insulin sensitive
Soybean helps to normalize plasma glucose and insulin homeostasis, according to "Increased insulin sensitivity and changes in the expression profile of key insulin regulatory genes and beta cell transcription factors in diabetic KKAy-mice after feeding with a soy bean protein rich diet high in isoflavone content" by Nordentoft I, Jeppesen PB, Hong J, Abudula R, Hermansen K.(1)

2. Cardiovascular diseases
Soy protein reduces reduces the levels of serum lipoprotein, decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triacylglycerol/HDL-C and TC/HDL-Cpostmenopausal women are at risk of cardiovascular disease, according to "Effects of soy bean on serum paraoxonase 1 activity and lipoproteins in hyperlipidemic postmenopausal women" by Shidfar F, Ehramphosh E, Heydari I, Haghighi L, Hosseini S, Shidfar S.(2)

3. Adipogenesis and Adipolysis
Germinated soy bean protein hydrolysates had an effect on inhibition of lipid storage in adypocites and increasing lipolysis, according to "Effect of Germinated Soybean Protein Hydrolysates on Adipogenesis and Adipolysis in 3T3-L1 Cells" by González-Espinosa de Los Monteros LA, Ramón-Gallegos E, Torres-Torres N, Mora-Escobedo R.(3)

4. Antioxidant effects
Extract from Virginia-grown soybean seeds had exerted its antioxidant effect when compared for their total phenolic contents (TPC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH(*)) scavenging activities, according to "Comparison of different strategies for soybean antioxidant extraction" by Chung H, Ji X, Canning C, Sun S, Zhou K.(4)

5. Diabetes and hypertension
phenolic-rich extracts has exerted the inhibitory activities of phenolic-rich extracts from soybean on α-amylase, α-glucosidase and angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) activities in vitro, according to "Soybean phenolic-rich extracts inhibit key-enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) and hypertension (angiotensin I converting enzyme) in vitro" by Ademiluyi AO, Oboh G.(5)

6. Aspartic acid
Aspartic acid not only helps to protect the body from drug toxicity and radiation, it also plays an essential role for the brain in information transmitting across the synapse, thus enhancing the learning and memory mechanism, according to the study of "Disinhibition-Mediated LTP in the Hippocampus is Synapse Specific" by Ormond J, Woodin MA., posted in PubMed (

7. Histidine
Histidine plays an important role in promoting white and red blood cells, thus increasing the immune system in fight against forming of free radical and reducing the risk anemia., according to the study of "The role of histidine in the anemia of folate deficiency" by Cooperman JM, Lopez R., posted in PubMed (, researchers concluded that concluded that folate deficiency causes histidine depletion through increased urinary excretion of this amino acid. Feeding histidine replenishes tissue levels of histidine, resulting in hemoglobin regeneration. Folic acid administration results in return of histidine to normal urinary levels. Thus, a combination of folic acid histidine would be beneficial for folate deficient individuals.

8. Serine
As an amino acid, serine in soybean not only helps to maintain proper muscle build up by synthesizing fatty acids and proteins, it also is important for brain in to transport information between themselves and cells in other parts of the body, according to the study of "Transport systems of serine at the brain barriers and in brain parenchymal cells" by Kasai Y, Tachikawa M, Hirose S, Akanuma S, Hosoya K., posted in PubMed (

9. Alanine
Alanine not only is essential in production of energy in glucose synthesis (according to the study ofGlucose and insulin effects on the novo amino acid synthesis in young men: studies with stable isotope labeled alanine, glycine, leucine, and lysine" by Robert JJ, Bier DM, Zhao XH, Matthews DE, Young VR., posted in PubMed ( it also enhances the immune system in production of anti bodies., according to the study of "The immune response of tetraparental mice to two synthetic amino acid polymers: "high-conjugation" 2,4 dinitrophenyl-glutamic acid57-lysine38-alanine5 (DNP-GLA5) and glutamic acid60 alanine30 tyrosine10 (GAT10)" by Warner CM, Fitzmaurice M, Maurer PH, Merryman CF, Schmerr MJ., posted in The Journey of Immunology (

10. Isoleucine
Another animo acid helps to maintain the body tissues and store glycogen in muscles thereby reducing the risk of muscle breaking down during physical activity., according to the study of "Isoleucine, a potent plasma glucose-lowering amino acid, stimulates glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes" by Doi M, Yamaoka I, Fukunaga T, Nakayama M., posted in PubMed (, researchers that isoleucine stimulates the insulin-independent glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells, which may contribute to the plasma glucose-lowering effect of isoleucine in normal rats.

11. Etc.

Side effect
1. Toxicity
Raw soybeans, including the immature green form, are toxic.
2. Etc.

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